In this series of posts, I’ll attempt to describe some of the core functions for dealing with generic data types (such as `Option`

and `List`

).
This is a follow-up post to my talk on functional patterns.

Yes, I know that I promised not to do this kind of thing, but for this post I thought I’d take a different approach from most people. Rather than talking about abstractions such as type classes, I thought it might be useful to focus on the core functions themselves and how they are used in practice.

In other words, a sort of “man page” for `map`

, `return`

, `apply`

, and `bind`

.

So, there is a section for each function, describing their name (and common aliases), common operators, their type signature, and then a detailed description of why they are needed and how they are used, along with some visuals (which I always find helpful).

Haskellers and category-theorists may want to look away now! There will be no mathematics and quite a lot of hand-waving. I am going to avoid jargon and Haskell-specific concepts such as type classes and focus on the big picture as much as possible. The concepts here should be applicable to any kind of functional programming in any language.

I know that some people might dislike this approach. That’s fine. There is no shortage of more academic explanations on the web. Start with this and this.

Finally, as with most of the posts on this site, I am writing this up for my own benefit as well, as part of my own learning process. I don’t claim to be an expert at all, so if I have made any errors please let me know.

To start with, let me provide the background and some terminology.

Imagine that there are two worlds that we could program in: a “normal” everyday world and a world that I will call the “elevated world” (for reasons that I will explain shortly).

The elevated world is very similar to the normal world. In fact, every thing in the normal world has a corresponding thing in the elevated world.

So, for example, we have the set of values called `Int`

in the normal world, and in the elevated world there is a parallel set of values called, say, `E<Int>`

.
Similarly, we have the set of values called `String`

in the normal world, and in the elevated world there is a parallel set of values called `E<String>`

.

Also, just as there are functions between `Int`

s and `String`

s in the normal world, so there are functions between `E<Int>`

s and `E<String>`

s in the elevated world.

Note that I am deliberately using the term “world” rather than “type” to emphasis that the *relationships* between values in the world are just as important as the underlying data type.

I can’t define what an elevated world is exactly, because there are too many different kinds of elevated worlds, and they don’t have anything in common.

Some of them represent data structures (`Option<T>`

), some of them represent workflows (`State<T>`

),
some of them represent signals (`Observable<T>`

), or asychronous values (`Async<T>`

), or other concepts.

But even though the various elevated worlds have nothing in common specifically, there *are* commonalities in the way they can be worked with.
We find that certain issues occur over and over again in different elevated worlds, and we can use standard tools and patterns to deal with
these issues.

The rest of this series will attempt to document these tools and patterns.

This series is developed as follows:

- First, I’ll discuss the tools we have for lifting normal things into the elevated world. This includes functions such as
`map`

,`return`

,`apply`

and`bind`

. - Next, I’ll discuss how you can combine elevated values in different ways, based on whether the values are independent or dependent.
- Next, we’ll look at some ways of mixing lists with other elevated values.
- Finally, we’ll look at two real-world examples that put all these techniques to use, and we’ll find ourselves accidentally inventing the Reader monad.

Here’s a list of shortcuts to the various functions:

**Part 1: Lifting to the elevated world****Part 2: How to compose world-crossing functions****Part 3: Using the core functions in practice****Part 4: Mixing lists and elevated values****Part 5: A real-world example that uses all the techniques****Part 6: Designing your own elevated world****Part 7: Summary**

If you find this site useful, you can download it as a ebook/PDF here.

The first challenge is: how do we get from the normal world to the elevated world?

First, we will assume that for any particular elevated world:

- Every type in the normal world has a corresponding type in the elevated world.
- Every value in the normal world has a corresponding value in the elevated world.
- Every function in the normal world has a corresponding function in the elevated world.

The concept of moving something from the normal world to the elevated world is called “lifting” (which is why I used the term “elevated world” in the first place).

We’ll call these corresponding things “lifted types” and “lifted values” and “lifted functions”.

Now because each elevated world is different, there is no common implementation for lifting, but we can give names to the various “lifting” patterns, such as `map`

and `return`

.

*NOTE: There is no standard name for these lifted types. I have seen them called “wrapper types” or “augmented types” or “monadic types”. I’m
not really happy with any of these names, so I invented a new one! Also, I’m trying avoid any assumptions, so
I don’t want to imply that the lifted types are somehow better or contain extra information. I hope that by using the word “elevated” in this post,
I can focus on the *lifting process* rather than on the types themselves.*

*As for using the word “monadic”, that would be inaccurate, as there is no requirement that these types are part of a monad.*

`map`

function**Common Names**: `map`

, `fmap`

, `lift`

, `Select`

**Common Operators**: `<$>`

`<!>`

**What it does**: Lifts a function into the elevated world

**Signature**: `(a->b) -> E<a> -> E<b>`

. Alternatively with the parameters reversed: `E<a> -> (a->b) -> E<b>`

“map” is the generic name for something that takes a function in the normal world and transforms it into a corresponding function in the elevated world.

Each elevated world will have its own implementation of map.

An alternative interpretation of `map`

is that it is a *two* parameter function that takes an elevated value (`E<a>`

) and a normal function (`a->b`

),
and returns a new elevated value (`E<b>`

) generated by applying the function `a->b`

to the internal elements of `E<a>`

.

In languages where functions are curried by default, such as F#, both these interpretation are the same. In other languages, you may need to curry/uncurry to switch between the two uses.

Note that the *two* parameter version often has the signature `E<a> -> (a->b) -> E<b>`

, with the elevated value first and the normal function second.
From an abstract point of view, there’s no difference between them – the map concept is the same – but obviously,
the parameter order affects how you might use map functions in practice.

Here are two examples of how map can be defined for options and lists in F#.

```
/// map for Options
let mapOption f opt =
match opt with
| None ->
None
| Some x ->
Some (f x)
// has type : ('a -> 'b) -> 'a option -> 'b option
/// map for Lists
let rec mapList f list =
match list with
| [] ->
[]
| head::tail ->
// new head + new tail
(f head) :: (mapList f tail)
// has type : ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b list
```

These functions are built-in of course, so we don’t need to define them, I’ve done it just to show what they might look for some common types.

Here are some examples of how map can be used in F#:

```
// Define a function in the normal world
let add1 x = x + 1
// has type : int -> int
// A function lifted to the world of Options
let add1IfSomething = Option.map add1
// has type : int option -> int option
// A function lifted to the world of Lists
let add1ToEachElement = List.map add1
// has type : int list -> int list
```

With these mapped versions in place you can write code like this:

```
Some 2 |> add1IfSomething // Some 3
[1;2;3] |> add1ToEachElement // [2; 3; 4]
```

In many cases, we don’t bother to create an intermediate function – partial application is used instead:

```
Some 2 |> Option.map add1 // Some 3
[1;2;3] |> List.map add1 // [2; 3; 4]
```

I said earlier that the elevated world is in some ways a mirror of the normal world. Every function in the normal world has a corresponding function in the elevated world,
and so on. We want `map`

to return this corresponding elevated function in a sensible way.

For example, `map`

of `add`

should not (wrongly) return the elevated version of `multiply`

, and `map`

of `lowercase`

should not return the elevated version of `uppercase`

!
But how can we be *sure* that a particular implementation of map does indeed return the *correct* corresponding function?

In my post on property based testing I showed how a correct implementation of a function can be defined and tested using general properties rather than specific examples.

This is true for `map`

as well. The implementation will vary with the specific elevated world, but in all cases,
there are certain properties that the implementation should satisfy to avoid strange behavior.

First, if you take the `id`

function in the normal world, and you lift it into the elevated world with `map`

,
the new function must be the *same* as the `id`

function in the elevated world.

Next, if you take two functions `f`

and `g`

in the normal world, and you compose them (into `h`

, say), and then lift the resulting function using `map`

,
the resulting function should be the *same* as if you lifted `f`

and `g`

into the elevated world *first*, and then composed them there afterwards.

These two properties are the so-called “Functor Laws”,
and a **Functor** (in the programming sense) is defined as a generic data type – `E<T>`

in our case – plus a `map`

function that obeys the functor laws.

*NOTE: “Functor” is a confusing word. There is “functor” in the category theory sense, and there is “functor” in the programming sense (as defined above).
There are also things called “functors” defined in libraries, such as the Functor type class in Haskell,
and the Functor trait in Scalaz,
not to mention functors in SML and OCaml (and C++),
which are different yet again!*

*Consequently, I prefer to talk about “mappable” worlds. In practical programming, you will almost never run into a elevated world that does not support being mapped over somehow.*

There are some variants of map that are common:

**Const map**. A const or “replace-by” map replaces all values with a constant rather than the output of a function. In some cases, a specialized function like this can allow for a more efficient implementation.**Maps that work with cross-world functions**. The map function`a->b`

lives entirely in the normal world. But what if the function you want to map with does not return something in the normal world, but a value in another, different, enhanced world? We’ll see how to address this challenge in a later post.

`return`

function**Common Names**: `return`

, `pure`

, `unit`

, `yield`

, `point`

**Common Operators**: None

**What it does**: Lifts a single value into the elevated world

**Signature**: `a -> E<a>`

“return” (also known as “unit” or “pure”) simply creates a elevated value from a normal value.

This function goes by many names, but I’m going to be consistent and call it `return`

as that is the common term for it in F#, and is the term used in computation expressions.

*NOTE: I’m ignoring the difference between pure and return, because type classes are not the focus of this post.*

Here are two examples of `return`

implementations in F#:

```
// A value lifted to the world of Options
let returnOption x = Some x
// has type : 'a -> 'a option
// A value lifted to the world of Lists
let returnList x = [x]
// has type : 'a -> 'a list
```

Obviously, we don’t need to define special functions like this for options and lists. Again, I’ve just done it to show what `return`

might look for some common types.

`apply`

function**Common Names**: `apply`

, `ap`

**Common Operators**: `<*>`

**What it does**: Unpacks a function wrapped inside a elevated value into a lifted function `E<a> -> E<b>`

**Signature**: `E<(a->b)> -> E<a> -> E<b>`

“apply” unpacks a function wrapped inside a elevated value (`E<(a->b)>`

) into a lifted function `E<a> -> E<b>`

This might seem unimportant, but is actually very valuable, as it allows you to lift a multi-parameter function in the normal world into a multi-parameter function in the elevated world, as we’ll see shortly.

An alternative interpretation of `apply`

is that it is a *two* parameter function that takes a elevated value (`E<a>`

) and a elevated function (`E<(a->b)>`

),
and returns a new elevated value (`E<b>`

) generated by applying the function `a->b`

to the internal elements of `E<a>`

.

For example, if you have a one-parameter function (`E<(a->b)>`

), you can apply it to a single elevated parameter to get the output as another elevated value.

If you have a two-parameter function (`E<(a->b->c)>`

), you can use `apply`

twice in succession with two elevated parameters to get the elevated output.

You can continue to use this technique to work with as many parameters as you wish.

Here are some examples of defining `apply`

for two different types in F#:

```
module Option =
// The apply function for Options
let apply fOpt xOpt =
match fOpt,xOpt with
| Some f, Some x -> Some (f x)
| _ -> None
module List =
// The apply function for lists
// [f;g] apply [x;y] becomes [f x; f y; g x; g y]
let apply (fList: ('a->'b) list) (xList: 'a list) =
[ for f in fList do
for x in xList do
yield f x ]
```

In this case, rather than have names like `applyOption`

and `applyList`

, I have given the functions the same name but put them in a per-type module.

Note that in the `List.apply`

implementation, each function in the first list is applied to each value in the second list, resulting in a “cross-product” style result.
That is, the list of functions `[f; g]`

applied to the list of values `[x; y]`

becomes the four-element list `[f x; f y; g x; g y]`

. We’ll see shortly that this is not the only
way to do it.

Also, of course, I’m cheating by building this implementation on a `for..in..do`

loop – functionality that already exists!

I did this for clarity in showing how `apply`

works. It’s easy enough to create a “from scratch” recursive implementation,
(though it is not so easy to create one that is properly tail-recursive!) but I want to focus on the concepts not on the implementation for now.

Using the `apply`

function as it stands can be awkward, so it is common to create an infix version, typically called `<*>`

.
With this in place you can write code like this:

```
let resultOption =
let (<*>) = Option.apply
(Some add) <*> (Some 2) <*> (Some 3)
// resultOption = Some 5
let resultList =
let (<*>) = List.apply
[add] <*> [1;2] <*> [10;20]
// resultList = [11; 21; 12; 22]
```

The combination of `apply`

and `return`

is considered “more powerful” than `map`

, because if you have `apply`

and `return`

,
you can construct `map`

from them, but not vice versa.

Here’s how it works: to construct a lifted function from a normal function, just use `return`

on the normal function and then `apply`

.
This gives you the same result as if you had simply done `map`

in the first place.

This trick also means that our infix notation can be simplified a little. The initial `return`

then `apply`

can be replaced with `map`

,
and we so typically create an infix operator for `map`

as well, such as `<!>`

in F#.

```
let resultOption2 =
let (<!>) = Option.map
let (<*>) = Option.apply
add <!> (Some 2) <*> (Some 3)
// resultOption2 = Some 5
let resultList2 =
let (<!>) = List.map
let (<*>) = List.apply
add <!> [1;2] <*> [10;20]
// resultList2 = [11; 21; 12; 22]
```

This makes the code look more like using the function normally. That is, instead of the normal `add x y`

, we can use the similar looking `add <!> x <*> y`

,
but now `x`

and `y`

can be elevated values rather than normal values. Some people have even called this style “overloaded whitespace”!

Here’s one more for fun:

```
let batman =
let (<!>) = List.map
let (<*>) = List.apply
// string concatenation using +
(+) <!> ["bam"; "kapow"; "zap"] <*> ["!"; "!!"]
// result =
// ["bam!"; "bam!!"; "kapow!"; "kapow!!"; "zap!"; "zap!!"]
```

As with `map`

, a correct implementation of the `apply`

/`return`

pair should have some properties that are true no matter what elevated world we are working with.

There are four so-called “Applicative Laws”,
and an **Applicative Functor** (in the programming sense) is defined as a generic data type constructor – `E<T>`

– plus a pair of
functions (`apply`

and `return`

) that obey the applicative laws.

Just as with the laws for `map`

, these laws are quite sensible. I’ll show two of them.

The first law says that if you take the `id`

function in the normal world, and you lift it into the elevated world with `return`

, and then you do `apply`

,
the new function, which is of type `E<a> -> E<a>`

, should be the same as the `id`

function in the elevated world.

The second law says that if you take a function `f`

and a value `x`

in the normal world, and you apply `f`

to `x`

to get a result (`y`

, say), and then lift the result using `return`

,
the resulting value should be the same as if you lifted `f`

and `x`

into the elevated world *first*, and then applied them there afterwards.

The other two laws are not so easily diagrammed, so I won’t document them here, but together the laws ensure that any implementation is sensible.

`liftN`

family of functions**Common Names**: `lift2`

, `lift3`

, `lift4`

and similar

**Common Operators**: None

**What it does**: Combines two (or three, or four) elevated values using a specified function

**Signature**:

lift2: `(a->b->c) -> E<a> -> E<b> -> E<c>`

,

lift3: `(a->b->c->d) -> E<a> -> E<b> -> E<c> -> E<d>`

,

etc.

The `apply`

and `return`

functions can be used to define a series of helper functions `liftN`

(`lift2`

, `lift3`

, `lift4`

, etc)
that take a normal function with N parameters (where N=2,3,4, etc) and transform it to a corresponding elevated function.

Note that `lift1`

is just `map`

, and so it is not usually defined as a separate function.

Here’s what an implementation might look like:

```
module Option =
let (<*>) = apply
let (<!>) = Option.map
let lift2 f x y =
f <!> x <*> y
let lift3 f x y z =
f <!> x <*> y <*> z
let lift4 f x y z w =
f <!> x <*> y <*> z <*> w
```

Here’s a visual representation of `lift2`

:

The `lift`

series of functions can be used to make code a bit more readable because,
by using one of the pre-made `lift`

functions, we can avoid the `<*>`

syntax.

First, here’s an example of lifting a two-parameter function:

```
// define a two-parameter function to test with
let addPair x y = x + y
// lift a two-param function
let addPairOpt = Option.lift2 addPair
// call as normal
addPairOpt (Some 1) (Some 2)
// result => Some 3
```

And here’s an example of lifting a three-parameter function:

```
// define a three-parameter function to test with
let addTriple x y z = x + y + z
// lift a three-param function
let addTripleOpt = Option.lift3 addTriple
// call as normal
addTripleOpt (Some 1) (Some 2) (Some 3)
// result => Some 6
```

There is an alternative interpretation of `apply`

as a “combiner” of elevated values, rather than as function application.

For example, when using `lift2`

, the first parameter is a parameter specifying how to combine the values.

Here’s an example where the same values are combined in two different ways: first with addition, then with multiplication.

```
Option.lift2 (+) (Some 2) (Some 3) // Some 5
Option.lift2 (*) (Some 2) (Some 3) // Some 6
```

Going further, can we eliminate the need for this first function parameter and have a *generic* way of combining the values?

Why, yes we can! We can just use a tuple constructor to combine the values. When we do this we are combining the values without making any decision about how they will be used yet.

Here’s what it looks like in a diagram:

and here’s how you might implement it for options and lists:

```
// define a tuple creation function
let tuple x y = x,y
// create a generic combiner of options
// with the tuple constructor baked in
let combineOpt x y = Option.lift2 tuple x y
// create a generic combiner of lists
// with the tuple constructor baked in
let combineList x y = List.lift2 tuple x y
```

Let’s see what happens when we use the combiners:

```
combineOpt (Some 1) (Some 2)
// Result => Some (1, 2)
combineList [1;2] [100;200]
// Result => [(1, 100); (1, 200); (2, 100); (2, 200)]
```

Now that we have an elevated tuple, we can work with the pair in any way we want, we just need to use `map`

to do the actual combining.

Want to add the values? Just use `+`

in the `map`

function:

```
combineOpt (Some 2) (Some 3)
|> Option.map (fun (x,y) -> x + y)
// Result => // Some 5
combineList [1;2] [100;200]
|> List.map (fun (x,y) -> x + y)
// Result => [101; 201; 102; 202]
```

Want to multiply the values? Just use `*`

in the `map`

function:

```
combineOpt (Some 2) (Some 3)
|> Option.map (fun (x,y) -> x * y)
// Result => Some 6
combineList [1;2] [100;200]
|> List.map (fun (x,y) -> x * y)
// Result => [100; 200; 200; 400]
```

And so on. Obviously, real-world uses would be somewhat more interesting.

`apply`

in terms of `lift2`

Interestingly, the `lift2`

function above can be actually used as an alternative basis for defining `apply`

.

That is, we can define `apply`

in terms of the `lift2`

function by setting the combining function to be just function application.

Here’s a demonstration of how this works for `Option`

:

```
module Option =
/// define lift2 from scratch
let lift2 f xOpt yOpt =
match xOpt,yOpt with
| Some x,Some y -> Some (f x y)
| _ -> None
/// define apply in terms of lift2
let apply fOpt xOpt =
lift2 (fun f x -> f x) fOpt xOpt
```

This alternative approach is worth knowing about because for some types it’s easier to define `lift2`

than `apply`

.

Notice that in all the combiners we’ve looked at, if one of the elevated values is “missing” or “bad” somehow, then the overall result is also bad.

For example, with `combineList`

, if one of the parameters is an empty list, the result is also an empty list,
and with `combineOpt`

, if one of the parameters is `None`

, the result is also `None`

.

```
combineOpt (Some 2) None
|> Option.map (fun (x,y) -> x + y)
// Result => None
combineList [1;2] []
|> List.map (fun (x,y) -> x * y)
// Result => Empty list
```

It’s possible to create an alternative kind of combiner that ignores missing or bad values, just as adding “0” to a number is ignored. For more information, see my post on “Monoids without tears”.

`<*`

and `*>`

In some cases you might have two elevated values, and want to discard the value from one side or the other.

Here’s an example for lists:

```
let ( <* ) x y =
List.lift2 (fun left right -> left) x y
let ( *> ) x y =
List.lift2 (fun left right -> right) x y
```

We can then combine a 2-element list and a 3-element list to get a 6-element list as expected, but the contents come from only one side or the other.

```
[1;2] <* [3;4;5] // [1; 1; 1; 2; 2; 2]
[1;2] *> [3;4;5] // [3; 4; 5; 3; 4; 5]
```

We can turn this into a feature! We can replicate a value N times by crossing it with `[1..n]`

.

```
let repeat n pattern =
[1..n] *> pattern
let replicate n x =
[1..n] *> [x]
repeat 3 ["a";"b"]
// ["a"; "b"; "a"; "b"; "a"; "b"]
replicate 5 "A"
// ["A"; "A"; "A"; "A"; "A"]
```

Of course, this is by no means an efficient way to replicate a value, but it does show that starting with just the two functions `apply`

and `return`

,
you can build up some quite complex behavior.

On a more practical note though, why might this “throwing away data” be useful? Well in many cases, we might not want the values, but we *do* want the effects.

For example, in a parser, you might see code like this:

```
let readQuotedString =
readQuoteChar *> readNonQuoteChars <* readQuoteChar
```

In this snippet, `readQuoteChar`

means “match and read a quote character from the input stream” and
`readNonQuoteChars`

means “read a series of non-quote characters from the input stream”.

When we are parsing a quoted string we want ensure the input stream that contains the quote character is read, but we don’t care about the quote characters themselves, just the inner content.

Hence the use of `*>`

to ignore the leading quote and `<*`

to ignore the trailing quote.

`zip`

function and ZipList world**Common Names**: `zip`

, `zipWith`

, `map2`

**Common Operators**: `<*>`

(in the context of ZipList world)

**What it does**: Combines two lists (or other enumerables) using a specified function

**Signature**: `E<(a->b->c)> -> E<a> -> E<b> -> E<c>`

where `E`

is a list or other enumerable type,
or `E<a> -> E<b> -> E<a,b>`

for the tuple-combined version.

Some data types might have more than one valid implementation of `apply`

. For example, there is another possible implementation of `apply`

for lists,
commonly called `ZipList`

or some variant of that.

In this implementation, the corresponding elements in each list are processed at the same time, and then both lists are shifted to get the next element.
That is, the list of functions `[f; g]`

applied to the list of values `[x; y]`

becomes the two-element list `[f x; g y]`

```
// alternate "zip" implementation
// [f;g] apply [x;y] becomes [f x; g y]
let rec zipList fList xList =
match fList,xList with
| [],_
| _,[] ->
// either side empty, then done
[]
| (f::fTail),(x::xTail) ->
// new head + new tail
(f x) :: (zipList fTail xTail)
// has type : ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b list
```

*WARNING: This implementation is just for demonstration. It’s not tail-recursive, so don’t use it for large lists!*

If the lists are of different lengths, some implementations throw an exception (as the F# library functions `List.map2`

and `List.zip`

do),
while others silently ignore the extra data (as the implementation above does).

Ok, let’s see it in use:

```
let add10 x = x + 10
let add20 x = x + 20
let add30 x = x + 30
let result =
let (<*>) = zipList
[add10; add20; add30] <*> [1; 2; 3]
// result => [11; 22; 33]
```

Note that the result is `[11; 22; 33]`

– only three elements. If we had used the standard `List.apply`

, there would have been nine elements.

We saw above that `List.apply`

, or rather `List.lift2`

, could be intepreted as a combiner. Similarly, so can `zipList`

.

```
let add x y = x + y
let resultAdd =
let (<*>) = zipList
[add;add] <*> [1;2] <*> [10;20]
// resultAdd = [11; 22]
// [ (add 1 10); (add 2 20) ]
```

Note that we can’t just have *one* `add`

function in the first list – we have to have one `add`

for every element in the second and third lists!

That could get annoying, so often, a “tupled” version of `zip`

is used, whereby you don’t specify a combining function at all, and just get back a list of tuples instead,
which you can then process later using `map`

.
This is the same approach as was used in the `combine`

functions discussed above, but for `zipList`

.

In standard List world, there is an `apply`

and a `return`

. But with our different version of `apply`

we can create a different version of List world
called ZipList world.

ZipList world is quite different from the standard List world.

In ZipList world, the `apply`

function is implemented as above. But more interestingly, ZipList world has a *completely different*
implementation of `return`

compared with standard List world.
In the standard List world, `return`

is just a list with a single element, but for
ZipList world, it has to be an infinitely repeated value!

In a non-lazy language like F#, we can’t do this, but if we replace `List`

with `Seq`

(aka `IEnumerable`

) then
we *can* create an infinitely repeated value, as shown below:

```
module ZipSeq =
// define "return" for ZipSeqWorld
let retn x = Seq.initInfinite (fun _ -> x)
// define "apply" for ZipSeqWorld
// (where we can define apply in terms of "lift2", aka "map2")
let apply fSeq xSeq =
Seq.map2 (fun f x -> f x) fSeq xSeq
// has type : ('a -> 'b) seq -> 'a seq -> 'b seq
// define a sequence that is a combination of two others
let triangularNumbers =
let (<*>) = apply
let addAndDivideByTwo x y = (x + y) / 2
let numbers = Seq.initInfinite id
let squareNumbers = Seq.initInfinite (fun i -> i * i)
(retn addAndDivideByTwo) <*> numbers <*> squareNumbers
// evaulate first 10 elements
// and display result
triangularNumbers |> Seq.take 10 |> List.ofSeq |> printfn "%A"
// Result =>
// [0; 1; 3; 6; 10; 15; 21; 28; 36; 45]
```

This example demonstrates that an elevated world is *not* just a data type (like the List type) but consists of the datatype *and* the functions that work with it.
In this particular case, “List world” and “ZipList world” share the same data type but have quite different environments.

`map`

and `apply`

and `return`

?So far we have defined all these useful functions in an abstract way. But how easy is it to find real types that have implementations of them, including all the various laws?

The answer is: very easy! In fact *almost all* types support these set of functions. You’d be hard-pressed to find a useful type that didn’t.

That means that `map`

and `apply`

and `return`

are available (or can be easily implemented) for standard types such as `Option`

, `List`

, `Seq`

, `Async`

, etc.,
and also any types you are likely to define yourself.

In this post, I described three core functions for lifting simple “normal” values to elevated worlds: `map`

, `return`

, and `apply`

,
plus some derived functions like `liftN`

and `zip`

.

In practice however, things are not that simple. We frequently have to work with functions that cross between the worlds. Their input is in the normal world but their output is in the elevated world.

In the next post we’ll show how these world-crossing functions can be lifted to the elevated world as well.