Before we finish with types, let’s revisit type inference: the magic that allows the F# compiler to deduce what types are used and where. We have seen this happen through all the examples so far, but how does it work and what can you do if it goes wrong?
It does seem to be magic, but the rules are mostly straightforward. The fundamental logic is based on an algorithm often called “Hindley-Milner” or “HM” (more accurately it should be called “Damas-Milner’s Algorithm W”). If you want to know the details, go ahead and Google it.
I do recommend that you take some time to understand this algorithm so that you can “think like the compiler” and troubleshoot effectively when you need to.
Here are some of the rules for determine the types of simple and function values:
Let’s look at each of these in turn.
The literals give the compiler a clue to the context. As we have seen, the type checking is very strict; ints and floats are not automatically cast to the other. The benefit of this is that the compiler can deduce types by looking at the literals. If the literal is an
int and you are adding “x” to it, then “x” must be an int as well. But if the literal is a
float and you are adding “x” to it, then “x” must be a float as well.
Here are some examples. Run them and see their signatures in the interactive window:
let inferInt x = x + 1 let inferFloat x = x + 1.0 let inferDecimal x = x + 1m // m suffix means decimal let inferSByte x = x + 1y // y suffix means signed byte let inferChar x = x + 'a' // a char let inferString x = x + "my string"
If there are no literals anywhere, the compiler tries to work out the types by analyzing the functions and other values that they interact with. In the cases below, the “
indirect” function calls a function that we do know the types for, which gives us the information to deduce the types for the “
indirect” function itself.
let inferInt x = x + 1 let inferIndirectInt x = inferInt x //deduce that x is an int let inferFloat x = x + 1.0 let inferIndirectFloat x = inferFloat x //deduce that x is a float
And of course assignment counts as an interaction too. If x is a certain type, and y is bound (assigned) to x, then y must be the same type as x.
let x = 1 let y = x //deduce that y is also an int
Other interactions might be control structures, or external libraries
// if..else implies a bool let inferBool x = if x then false else true // for..do implies a sequence let inferStringList x = for y in x do printfn "%s" y // :: implies a list let inferIntList x = 99::x // .NET library method is strongly typed let inferStringAndBool x = System.String.IsNullOrEmpty(x)
If there are any explicit type constraints or annotations specified, then the compiler will use them. In the case below, we are explicitly telling the compiler that “
inferInt2” takes an
int parameter. It can then deduce that the return value for “
inferInt2” is also an
int, which in turn implies that “
inferIndirectInt2” is of type int->int.
let inferInt2 (x:int) = x let inferIndirectInt2 x = inferInt2 x let inferFloat2 (x:float) = x let inferIndirectFloat2 x = inferFloat2 x
Note that the formatting codes in
printf statements count as explicit type constraints too!
let inferIntPrint x = printf "x is %i" x let inferFloatPrint x = printf "x is %f" x let inferGenericPrint x = printf "x is %A" x
If after all this, there are no constraints found, the compiler just makes the types generic.
let inferGeneric x = x let inferIndirectGeneric x = inferGeneric x let inferIndirectGenericAgain x = (inferIndirectGeneric x).ToString()
The type inference works top-down, bottom-up, front-to-back, back-to-front, middle-out, anywhere there is type information, it will be used.
Consider the following example. The inner function has a literal, so we know that it returns an
int. And the outer function has been explicitly told that it returns a
string. But what is the type of the passed in “
action” function in the middle?
let outerFn action : string = let innerFn x = x + 1 // define a sub fn that returns an int action (innerFn 2) // result of applying action to innerFn
The type inference would work something like this:
x+1must be an
xmust be an
(innerFn 2)returns an
int, therefore “
action” takes an
actionis the return value for
outerFn, and therefore the output type of
actionis the same as the output type of
outerFnhas been explicitly constrained to
string, therefore the output type of
actionfunction has signature
val outerFn: (int -> string) -> string
The compiler can do deductions worthy of Sherlock Holmes. Here’s a tricky example that will test how well you have understood everything so far.
Let’s say we have a
doItTwice function that takes any input function (call it “
f”) and generates a new function that simply does the original function twice in a row. Here’s the code for it:
let doItTwice f = (f >> f)
As you can see, it composes
f with itself. So in other words, it means: “do f”, then “do f” on the result of that.
Now, what could the compiler possibly deduce about the signature of
Well, let’s look at the signature of “
f” first. The output of the first call to “
f” is also the input to the second call to “
f”. So therefore the output and input of “
f” must be the same type. So the signature of
f must be
'a -> 'a. The type is generic (written as ‘a) because we have no other information about it.
So going back to
doItTwice itself, we now know it takes a function parameter of
'a -> 'a. But what does it return? Well, here’s how we deduce it, step by step:
doItTwicegenerates a function, so must return a function type.
'a -> 'a
doItTwicehas a domain of
'a -> 'aand a range of
'a -> 'a, so therefore its signature must be
('a -> 'a) -> ('a -> 'a).
Is your head spinning yet? You might want to read it again until it sinks in.
Quite a sophisticated deduction for one line of code. Luckily the compiler does all this for us. But you will need to understand this kind of thing if you have problems and you have to determine what the compiler is doing.
Let’s test it! It’s actually much simpler to understand in practice than it is in theory.
let doItTwice f = (f >> f) let add3 x = x + 3 let add6 = doItTwice add3 // test add6 5 // result = 11 let square x = x * x let fourthPower = doItTwice square // test fourthPower 3 // result = 81 let chittyBang x = "Chitty " + x + " Bang" let chittyChittyBangBang = doItTwice chittyBang // test chittyChittyBangBang "&" // result = "Chitty Chitty & Bang Bang"
Hopefully, that makes more sense now.
The type inference isn’t perfect, alas. Sometimes the compiler just doesn’t have a clue what to do. Again, understanding what is happening will really help you stay calm instead of wanting to kill the compiler. Here are some of the main reasons for type errors:
A basic rule is that you must declare functions before they are used.
This code fails:
let square2 x = square x // fails: square not defined let square x = x * x
But this is ok:
let square x = x * x let square2 x = square x // square already defined earlier
And unlike C#, in F# the order of file compilation is important, so do make sure the files are being compiled in the right order. (In Visual Studio, you can change the order from the context menu).
A variant of the “out of order” problem occurs with recursive functions or definitions that have to refer to each other. No amount of reordering will help in this case – we need to use additional keywords to help the compiler.
When a function is being compiled, the function identifier is not available to the body. So if you define a simple recursive function, you will get a compiler error. The fix is to add the “rec” keyword as part of the function definition. For example:
// the compiler does not know what "fib" means let fib n = if n <= 2 then 1 else fib (n - 1) + fib (n - 2) // error FS0039: The value or constructor 'fib' is not defined
Here’s the fixed version with “rec fib” added to indicate it is recursive:
let rec fib n = // LET REC rather than LET if n <= 2 then 1 else fib (n - 1) + fib (n - 2)
A similar “
let rec ... and” syntax is used for two functions that refer to each other. Here is a very contrived example that fails if you do not have the “
let rec showPositiveNumber x = // LET REC rather than LET match x with | x when x >= 0 -> printfn "%i is positive" x | _ -> showNegativeNumber x and showNegativeNumber x = // AND rather than LET match x with | x when x < 0 -> printfn "%i is negative" x | _ -> showPositiveNumber x
and” keyword can also be used to declare simultaneous types in a similar way.
type A = None | AUsesB of B // error FS0039: The type 'B' is not defined type B = None | BUsesA of A
type A = None | AUsesB of B and B = None | BUsesA of A // use AND instead of TYPE
Sometimes, the compiler just doesn’t have enough information to determine a type. In the following example, the compiler doesn’t know what type the
Length method is supposed to work on. But it can’t make it generic either, so it complains.
let stringLength s = s.Length // error FS0072: Lookup on object of indeterminate type // based on information prior to this program point. // A type annotation may be needed ...
These kinds of error can be fixed with explicit annotations.
let stringLength (s:string) = s.Length
Occasionally there does appear to be enough information, but still the compiler doesn’t seem to recognize it. For example, it’s obvious to a human that the
List.map function (below) is being applied to a list of strings, so why does
x.Length cause an error?
List.map (fun x -> x.Length) ["hello"; "world"] //not ok
The reason is that the F# compiler is currently a one-pass compiler, and so information later in the program is ignored if it hasn’t been parsed yet. (The F# team have said that it is possible to make the compiler more sophisticated, but it would work less well with Intellisense and might produce more unfriendly and obscure error messages. So for now, we will have to live with this limitation.)
So in cases like this, you can always explicitly annotate:
List.map (fun (x:string) -> x.Length) ["hello"; "world"] // ok
But another, more elegant way that will often fix the problem is to rearrange things so the known types come first, and the compiler can digest them before it moves to the next clause.
["hello"; "world"] |> List.map (fun s -> s.Length) //ok
Functional programmers strive to avoid explicit type annotations, so this makes them much happier!
This technique can be used more generally in other areas as well; a rule of thumb is to try to put the things that have “known types” earlier than things that have “unknown types”.
When calling an external class or method in .NET, you will often get errors due to overloading.
In many cases, such as the concat example below, you will have to explicitly annotate the parameters of the external function so that the compiler knows which overloaded method to call.
let concat x = System.String.Concat(x) //fails let concat (x:string) = System.String.Concat(x) //works let concat x = System.String.Concat(x:string) //works
Sometimes the overloaded methods have different argument names, in which case you can also give the compiler a clue by naming the arguments. Here is an example for the
let makeStreamReader x = new System.IO.StreamReader(x) //fails let makeStreamReader x = new System.IO.StreamReader(path=x) //works
Numeric functions can be somewhat confusing. There often appear generic, but once they are bound to a particular numeric type, they are fixed, and using them with a different numeric type will cause an error. The following example demonstrates this:
let myNumericFn x = x * x myNumericFn 10 myNumericFn 10.0 //fails // error FS0001: This expression was expected to have // type int but has type float let myNumericFn2 x = x * x myNumericFn2 10.0 myNumericFn2 10 //fails // error FS0001: This expression was expected to have // type float but has type int
There is a way round this for numeric types using the “inline” keyword and “static type parameters”. I won’t discuss these concepts here, but you can look them up in the F# reference at MSDN.
So to summarize, the things that you can do if the compiler is complaining about missing types, or not enough information, are:
Once you have ordered and annotated everything, you will probably still get type errors, or find that functions are less generic than expected. With what you have learned so far, you should have the tools to determine why this happened (although it can still be painful).
let myBottomLevelFn x = x let myMidLevelFn x = let y = myBottomLevelFn x // some stuff let z= y // some stuff printf "%s" z // this will kill your generic types! // some more stuff x let myTopLevelFn x = // some stuff myMidLevelFn x // some more stuff x
In this example, we have a chain of functions. The bottom level function is definitely generic, but what about the top level one? Well often, we might expect it be generic but instead it is not. In this case we have:
val myTopLevelFn : string -> string
What went wrong? The answer is in the midlevel function. The
%s on z forced it be a string, which forced y and then x to be strings too.
Now this is a pretty obvious example, but with thousands of lines of code, a single line might be buried away that causes an issue. One thing that can help is to look at all the signatures; in this case the signatures are:
val myBottomLevelFn : 'a -> 'a // generic as expected val myMidLevelFn : string -> string // here's the clue! Should be generic val myTopLevelFn : string -> string
When you find a signature that is unexpected you know that it is the guilty party. You can then drill down into it and repeat the process until you find the problem.